Dai et al. (2023)

Priming Behavior: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Behavioral and Nonbehavioral Primes on Overt Behavioral Outcomes

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 351 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Past meta-analyses of the effects of priming on overt behavior have not examined whether the effects and processes of priming behavioral or nonbehavioral concepts (e.g., priming action through the word go and priming religion through the word church) differ, even though these possibilities are important to our understanding of concept accessibility and behavior. Hence, we meta-analyzed 351 studies (224 reports and 862 effect sizes) involving incidental presentation of behavioral or...

Harlow et al. (2023)

Memory retention following acoustic stimulation in slow-wave sleep: a meta-analytic review of replicability and measurement quality

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 462 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Difference | ABSTRACT: The role of slow oscillations and spindles during sleep on memory retention has become an area of great interest in the recent decade. Accordingly, there are multiple studies that examine the efficacy of acoustic stimulation during sleep to facilitate slow oscillations and associated memory retention. Here, we run meta-analyses on a current set of 14 studies that use audible noise-burst sound stimulation to modulate overnight retention of word pairs (kS = 12 studies, kES = 14...

Lotter et al. (2023)

Revealing the neurobiology underlying interpersonal neural synchronization with multimodal data fusion

[Paper] [Data]

| k = 91 studies | Effect size: MNI Coordinates | ABSTRACT: Humans synchronize with one another to foster successful interactions. Here, we use a multimodal data fusion approach with the aim of elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms by which interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) occurs. Our meta-analysis of 22 functional magnetic resonance imaging and 69 near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning experiments (740 and 3721 subjects) revealed robust brain regional correlates of INS in the right temporoparietal junction and left ventral prefrontal cortex....

Madigan et al. (2023)

The first 20,000 strange situation procedures: A meta-analytic review

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 285 | Effect size: Proportions | ABSTRACT: The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) was developed five decades ago to assess infant–parent attachment relationships. Although the procedure itself has remained relatively constant in over 285 studies (20,720 dyads) conducted to date, there have been vast sociological changes during this time, and research foci shifts to studying diverse populations. Since its inception, the SSP has also been adopted in over 20 countries. In this meta-analysis, we collate this large body of work, with the objectives of...

Sparacio et al. (2023)

Stress regulation via self-administered mindfulness and biofeedback interventions in adults: A pre-registered meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 46 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Difference | ABSTRACT: We conducted a pre-registered meta-analysis to appraise available evidence on two stress regulation strategies: Self-administered mindfulness meditation and heart rate variability biofeedback. We used a combination of keywords to find as many experimental and observational studies as possible, all of which highlighted a link between the two strategies and different components of stress (physiological, affective, and cognitive) and affective consequences of stress. To provide publication...

Zhang et al. (2023)

How Emotional Stimuli Modulate Cognitive Control: A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies With Conflict Tasks

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 71 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: How do emotional stimuli change the way we control our behavior? The interaction between emotion and behavior-shaping, cognitive control mechanisms remain little understood in psychological science. The present meta-analysis addresses this controversy by means of a quantitative review. We analyzed data from 71 studies published through December 2018 that investigated control in conflict tasks, like the Stroop, Simon, and/or flanker tasks, which are well-known tools for...

Anglim et al. (2022)

Personality and Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 272 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of personality and intelligence. It presents a meta-analysis (N = 162,636, k = 272) of domain, facet, and item-level correlations between personality and intelligence (general, fluid, and crystallized) for the major Big Five and HEXACO hierarchical frameworks of personality: NEO PI-R, Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS), BFI-2, and HEXACO PI R. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and intelligence to comprehensively...

Burnette et al. (2022)

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Growth Mindset Interventions: For Whom, How, and Why Might Such Interventions Work?

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 53 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Difference and Correlations | ABSTRACT: As growth mindset interventions increase in scope and popularity, scientists and policymakers are asking: Are these interventions effective? To answer this question properly, the field needs to understand the meaningful heterogeneity in effects. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we focused on two key moderators with adequate data to test: Subsamples expected to benefit most and implementation fidelity. We also specified a process model that can be...

Emslander and Scherer (2022)

The Relation Between Executive Functions and Math Intelligence in Preschool Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 47 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Executive functions (EFs) are key skills underlying other cognitive skills that are relevant to learning andeveryday life. Although a plethora of evidence suggests a positive relation between the three EFsubdimensions, inhibition, shifting, and updating, and math skills for schoolchildren and adults, thefindings on the magnitude of and possible variations in this relation are inconclusive for preschoolchildren and several narrow math skills (i.e., math intelligence). Therefore, the present...

Harper et al. (2022)

Association between trait mindfulness and symptoms of post-traumatic stress: A meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 35 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Mindfulness is characterized by skills such as heightened awareness and acceptance of internal experiences, which may be helpful for people who have experienced trauma. The consistency and strength of the relationship between trait mindfulness and PTSD symptomology, however, is unknown. Studies were included in this review if they were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal, reported on a correlational relationship between validated measures of mindfulness and PTSD, and all participants...

Huth and Chung-Yan (2022)

Quantifying the evidence for the absence of the job demands and job control interaction on workers well-being: A Bayesian meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 104 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Central to many influential theories in the occupational health and stress literature is that job resources reduce the negative effects of job demands on workers’ well-being. However, empirical investigations testing this supposition have produced inconsistent findings. This study evaluates the interaction between job demands and job control on workers well-being through a systematic literature search and using a Bayesian meta-analytic approach. Both aggregated study findings and raw participant-level...

Imuta et al. (2022)

A Meta-Analytic Review on the Social–Emotional Intelligence Correlates of the Six Bullying Roles: Bullies, Followers, Victims, Bully-Victims, Defenders, and Outsiders

[Paper] [Data]

| k = 128 studies | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Bullying is one of the most common peer-relational problems experienced by children and adolescents worldwide. One reason bullying is so widespread is that it is a dynamic, group process that involves multiple roles—namely, bullies, followers, victims, bully-victims, defenders, and outsiders. Given the profoundly negative impact of exposure to bullying on well-being across development, researchers have sought to identify the social–emotional intelligence profiles of the different bullying roles to develop...

Jansen et al. (2022)

Which student and instructional variables are most strongly related to academic motivation in K-12 education? A systematic review of meta-analyses.

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 125 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Academic motivation is an essential predictor of school success in K-12 education. Accordingly, many meta-analyses have examined variables associated with academic motivation. However, a central question remains unanswered: What is the relative strength of the relations of both student variables (achievement, socioemotional variables, and background variables) and instructional variables (teacher variables, interventions, and technology) to academic motivation? To address this...

Koutsoumpis et al. (2022)

The Kernel of Truth in Text-Based Personality Assessment:A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Big Five andthe Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 31 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) is a popular closed-vocabulary text analysis software program that is used to understand whether individuals’ use of linguistic categories (i.e., word categories, such as negative affect) depends on their personality traits. Here, we present the first meta-analysis of the relations between the Big Five personality traits and 52 linguistic categories of the English language. Across 31 eligible samples (n = 85,724), the results showed that (a)...

Macnamara and Burgoyne (2022)

Do Growth Mindset Interventions Impact Students’ Academic Achievement? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Recommendations for Best Practices

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 62 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: According to mindset theory, students who believe their personal characteristics can change—that is, those who hold a growth mindset—will achieve more than students who believe their characteristics are fixed. Proponents of the theory have developed interventions to influence students’ mindsets, claiming that these interventions lead to large gains in academic achievement. Despite their popularity, the evidence for growth mindset intervention benefits has not been systematically...

Quigley, Thiruchselvam, and Quilty (2022)

Cognitive Control Biases in Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 77 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Cognitive theories of depression propose that impaired cognitive control of emotional material may be involved in the onset, maintenance, and/or recurrence of depression. The present study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on cognitive control biases in depression. Seventy-three articles describing 77 independent studies (N = 4,134 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Depression-vulnerable individuals, including individuals with diagnosed...

Gerwig et al. (2021)

The Relationship between Intelligence and Divergent Thinking - A Meta-Analytic Update

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 112 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: This paper provides a meta-analytic update on the relationship between intelligence and divergent thinking (DT), as research on this topic has increased, and methods have diversified since Kims meta-analysis in 2005. A three-level meta-analysis was used to analyze 849 correlation coefficients from 112 studies with an overall N = 34,610. The overall effect showed a significant positive correlation of r = .25. This increase of the correlation as compared to Kim’s prior meta-analytic findings...

Michels and Schulze (2021)

Emotional intelligence and the dark triad: A meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of Studies (k): 71 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: The dark triad is commonly conceived of three subclinical socially aversive and exploitative personality traits: psychopathy, machiavellianism, and narcissism. These traits have been linked to certain abilities that may facilitate the attainment of goals in social interactions, one of which may be emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence encompasses the abilities to perceive emotions correctly, to understand the regularities of emotional functioning, and to regulate one’s own and others’ emotions....

Rouy et al. (2021)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of metacognitive abilities in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 42 | Effect size: Standard Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Metacognitive deficits are well documented in schizophrenia spectrum disorders as a decreased capacity to adjust confidence to performance in a cognitive task. Because metacognitive ability directly depends on task performance, metacognitive deficits might be driven by lower task performance among patients. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a Bayesian meta-analysis of 42 studies comparing metacognitive abilities in 1425 individuals with schizophrenia compared to 1256 matched controls....

Anglim et al. (2020)

Predicting Psychological and Subjective Well-Being from Personality: A Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 462 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: This study reports the most comprehensive assessment to date of the relations that the domains and facets of Big Five and HEXACO personality have with self-reported subjective well-being (SWB: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being (PWB: positive relations, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, self-acceptance, and personal growth). It presents a meta-analysis (n = 334,567, k = 462) of the correlations of Big Five and HEXACO...

Dora et al. (2023)

Predicting Psychological and Subjective Well-Being from Personality: A Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 69 | Effect size: Individual Person Data | ABSTRACT: Influential psychological theories hypothesize that people consume alcohol in response to the experience of both negative and positive emotions. Despite two decades of daily diary and ecological momentary assessment research, it remains unclear whether people consume more alcohol on days they experience higher negative and positive affects in everyday life. In this preregistered meta-analysis, we synthesized the evidence for these daily associations between affect and alcohol use. We included...

Hennessy, Mack, and Habibi (2020)

Speech‐in‐noise perception in musicians and non‐musicians: A multi‐level meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 31 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Speech-in-noise perception, the ability to hear a relevant voice within a noisy background, is important for successful communication. Musicians have been reported to perform better than non-musicians on speech-in-noise tasks. This meta-analysis uses a multi-level design to assess the claim that musicians have superior speech-in-noise abilities compared to non-musicians. Across 31 studies and 62 effect sizes, the overall effect of musician status on speech-in-noise ability is...

Thielmann, Spadaro, and Balliet (2020)

Personality and Prosocial Behavior: A Theoretical Framework and Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 770 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Decades of research document individual differences in prosocial behavior using controlled experiments that model social interactions in situations of interdependence. However, theoretical and empirical integration of the vast literature on the predictive validity of personality traits to account for these individual differences is missing. Here, we present a theoretical framework that identifies 4 broad situational affordances across interdependent situations (i.e., exploitation, reciprocity, temporal...

Wiernik and Kostal (2019)

Protean and boundaryless career orientations: A critical review and meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 135 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: The protean/boundaryless career concepts refer to people becoming more self-directed and flexible in managing their careers in response to societal shifts in work arrangements. A sizeable literature has emerged on protean/boundaryless career orientations/preferences (PBCO). Questions remain, however, about the structure of PBCO and whether they predict important criteria. The PBCO literature is largely disconnected from broader individual-level career research, making it unclear how PBCO...

Ritchie and Elliot-Drob (2018)

How Much Does Education Improve Intelligence? A Meta-Analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 42 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling...

Von Holzen and Bergmann (2018)

A Meta-Analysis of Infants Mispronunciation Sensitivity Development

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 32 | Effect size: Standardized Mean Differences | ABSTRACT: Before infants become mature speakers of their native language, they must acquire a robust word-recognition system which allows them to strike the balance between allowing some variation (mood, voice, accent) and recognizing variability that potentially changes meaning (e.g. cat vs hat). The current meta-analysis quantifies how the latter, termed mispronunciation sensitivity, changes over infants first three years, testing competing predictions of mainstream language acquisition...

Burgoyne et al. (2016)

The relationship between cognitive ability and chess skill: A comprehensive meta-analysis

[Paper] [Data]

| Number of studies (k): 19 | Effect size: Correlations | ABSTRACT: Why are some people more skilled in complex domains than other people? Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cognitive ability and skill in chess. Chess skill correlated positively and significantly with fluid reasoning (Gf) (r = 0.24), comprehension-knowledge (Gc) (r = 0.22), short-term memory (Gsm) (r = 0.25), and processing speed (Gs) (r = 0.24); the meta-analytic average of the correlations was (r = 0.24). Moreover, the correlation between...